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How to Quote


MLA Handbook, 8th ed., pp. 54-58
In-text citations identify the sources of your information within the text of the paper and direct the reader to the full reference entry in your works cited list at the end of the paper. In-text citations include the author and the page number(s) referenced and are typically in parentheses.

With one author

  • According to Roy (32)...
  • Despite their initial misgivings... (Roy 32)

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 54.

With two authors

  • Recent research by Talmidge and Lee (67)...
  • A recent study indicates that…(Talmidge and Lee 67).

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 116.

With three or more authors

  • The findings of Pulido et al. (23)...
  • Researchers found that...(Pulido et al. 23).

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 116.

With no author

Use the complete title, or a short form of the title if it is long, in place of an author. Book titles are italicized, article titles are put in quotation marks.

  • According to the Dictionary of Symbols (83)...
  • Recent data collected by…(“Arts funding crisis” 3).

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., pp. 55-56.

Corporate authors

Resource authors are not always named individuals; they may be organizations, companies, or other entities.

  • According to the BC Civil Liberties Association (7)...
  • Current tax law stipulates that…(Revenue Canada 223).

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 117.

Multiple sources

If you are crediting an idea to more than one source, separate citations with a semicolon within your in-text citation.

  • Both authors agree that…(Miles 16; Vukovich 27).

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 58.

Time-based media

When citing media such as films or videos you can include a time code expressed as hours:minutes:seconds.

  • (Debord 01:12:45-56)

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 57.

Citing Indirect Sources

If you are citing information from a source that is quoted or paraphrased from another source, note this in your in-text citation using qtd. in ("quoted in")

  • According  to Huang, "a popular revolt was inevitable after the public exposure of widespread corruption" (qtd. in Xue et al. 16).

Although best practice is to track down the original source of the quotation, in some cases this may not be possible. Only include sources you have actually read in your works cited list; in the above example this would be Xue et al. (Huang's original work was not seen but is being cited indirectly).

MLA Handbook, 8th ed., p. 124